Albert Einstein | Biography Quotes, Death & Facts
Albert Einstein was a German-Mathematician and Physicist who developed the 'General Theory of relativity' and also developed Quantum mechanics. He is considered the most impressive scientist of the 20th century.
For explaining the Photoelectric effect, Einstein was honored with the Nobel prize in physics, in 1921. His work has led to the general effect on the development of atomic energy.
- Full Name: Albert Einstein
- Born: 14 March 1879, Ulm, Germany
- Died: 18 April 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States
- Spouse: Elsa Einstein (m. 1919–1936), Mileva Marić (m. 1903–1919)
- Education: University of Zurich (1905), ETH Zürich (1897–1900), MORE
- Children: Eduard Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein
Einstein was born on 14th March 1879, in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, in a family of secular Ashkenazi Jews. His father (Hermann Einstein) was an engineer and salesman, and his mother (Pauline Einstein) was a former coach. After six months after Einstein's birth, his family moved to Munich, wherein in 1880, his father founded a company 'Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie' along with his uncle Jakob. Einstein had one sister Maja (Maria), who was two years younger than Einstein.
At the age of 05, Einstein joined a catholic elementary school in Munich where he learned for three years. After this Einstein was transferred to elementary school, in Luitpold Gymnasium, for his secondary education. At a young age, Einstein was very inquisitive. In 1884, Einstein's father (Hermann) and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lightning, because of this they lost sales of their company.
After this Einstein's family moved to 'Milan' and a few months later to 'Pavia' in Italy. But Einstein stayed in Munich to complete his secondary education. At an age of 12, a medical student, 'Max Talmud' tough him. In the last 1896's Einstein joined his family in Pavia, Italy. During a period in Italy, he wrote an essay whose title was "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field".
From a young age, Einstein was excellent in mathematics and physics. At the age of 12, he taught algebra and geometry to himself and also discovered his own proof of Pythagoras' Theorem.
At the age of 16, in 1895, Einstein took the entrance examination of Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, in Zürich and gained a very high percentage in mathematics and physics. On the advice of his school's principal, in 1895 and 1896, Einstein joined the 'Argovian cantonal school' in Aarau, Switzerland, and completed his secondary education. After completing graduation, Einstein leaves his German citizenship and accept his Swiss citizenship.
Discoveries and inventions
(i). Einstein has a strong impact on physics. He is famous for discovering the theory of relativity and mass-energy equation which is known as Einstein's equation.
In 1905, Einstein, on the basis of the relationship between matter and energy proposed the equation E = mc2. It means the energy of a body (E), is equal to the product of mass (m), and the square of the speed of light (c).
(ii). Theory of relativity
Einstein in 1905, in a paper on 'Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies', proposed the theory of relativity. about November 1915, Einstein completed the general theory of relativity. His assertions were confirmed via measurements taken during a "solar eclipse" in 1919, by British astronomers Sir Frank Dyson and Sir Arthur Eddington.
(iii). Member of NAACP
Einstein became a member of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), and SEEID the parallels between the treatment of African Americans in the United States and Jews in Germany.
Role in Reducing the usage rate of the atomic bomb
Einstein became a major player in a reduced rate of usage of the Atomic Bomb, by studying the bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945. Einstein in cooperation with Leo Szilard in 1945, founded the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists.
Einstein was German-born, so he had German citizenship from 1879 to 1896. when he completed his graduation in Switzerland, he renounced his German citizenship and became a Swizz citizen in 1901. He remained in Berlin up to 1933. In 1940, because of some political reasons, he became a united states citizen. In April 1911, by accepting Austrian citizenship in Austro Hungarian Empire, Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand University, Prague.
Prizes for Einstein's works
Einstein received many awards in the field of science. In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel prize in physics for explaining the Photoelectric effect. He was also honored with 'Barnard Medal' In 1920 by Columbia University. In 1921 he received 'Matteucci Medal' which is an Italian award.
He received the 'Copley Medal' from the Royal society in 1925. Copley Medal is given for fabulous achievements in research in any branch of science. He also received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1926 and Max Planck Medal in 1929. He became a Member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1942. After their death, he was titled 'Time Person of the Century - 1999'.
- Albert Einstein discovered the photoelectric effect in 1905.
- Einstein discovered the special theory of relativity in 1905 in his paper and in 1915 he completed and proposed the general theory of relativity.
- Einstein discovered the world-famous equation which is known as mass-energy equivalence and written as E= mc2.
- i.e. energy is equal to the product of mass into a square of Speed of light.
- Einstein is also known for discovering Brownian motion. Gravitational-wave.
- Einstein's field equation.
- Ensemble interpretation.
- EPR paradox and many more theories and relations.
Einstein married twice in his life. When Einstein was at a school in Zurich, Einstein met a Serbian physics student- ' Mileva Maric'. He grow closer to Maric, but Maric's parents were against their relationship after the death of her father they married on 06 January 1903.
In the same year, they were blessed with a daughter Lieserl. They had two sons 'Hans Albert Einstein', who became a famous hydraulic engineer, and 'Eduard Einstein'. Maric's emotional breakdown, cause their divorced in 1919.
In the same year on 02 June 1919, Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal with whom he had affair during his first marriage. They stayed together up to löwenthal's death in 193.
Einstein, at the age of 76, died on 18 April 1955, at University Medical Center, Princeton. Einstein was suffered from an abdominal aortic aneurysm. when he was hospitalized, he was suggested for surgery, but he refused by saying that "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly."
Einstein's brain and IQ
Their correct IQ of Einstein is not known. When Einstein died, pathologist 'Thomas Stoltz Harvey' removed his brain, during his autopsy, without his family's consent, For preservation and study by doctors of neuroscience.
Now, Einstein's brain is located at the Princeton University Medical Center. In accordance with his wishes, the rest of his body was cremated and the ashes scattered in a secret location.
A Canadian scientist "Sandra Freedman Witelson", studied Einstein's brain and found that the area that processes spatial relationships, mathematical thoughts, and 3D visualization, of Einstein's brain, is 15 percent wider than compared of people of normal intelligence.
Books on Einstein
There is a wide range of books based on Einstein's life and research. Einstein's own words are present in the collection "The World As I See It". A famous book on his life and research, the title "Einstein: His Life and Universe" is written by Walter, published in 2007, and "Albert Einstein; a Biography" by Jürgen Neffe. His famous book "Relativity: The Special and General Theory" was published in 1905.
Albert Einstein taught in many institutions which are listed below:
- The University of Bern (from 1908 to 1909).
- The University of Zurich (from 1909 to 1911).
- Charles University of Prague (1911 to 1913).
- ETH Zurich (from 1912 to 1914).
- Humboldt University of Berlin (1914 to 1933).
- Prussian academy of sciences (1914 to 1933).
- President of German physical society (from 1916 to 1918).
- Director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (from 1917 to 1933).
- Institution for advanced studies ( from 1933 to 1955).
Albert Einstein was awarded these awards:
- Barnard Medal (1920).
- Nobel prize in physics (1921).
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1926).
- Max plank Medal (1929).
- Matteucci medal(1921). Franklin medal (1935).
- Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Time person of the Century(1999).
- Einstein was also awarded by For MemRS in 1921 and
- Copley medal in 1925.
"Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the universe...”